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Muladhar Chakra

Muladhar Chakra


Muladhara is said to be located near the basal end of the spinal column in the vicinity of the coccygeal plexus beneath the sacrumit,[1] while its kshetram, or superficial activation point, is located on the perineum.[2]


Muladhara is described as a yellow, square lotus, surrounded by eight shining spears on the sides and corners, and with four red petals. The deity of this region is Indra, who is yellow in colour, four-armed, holding a vajra and blue lotus in his hands, and mounted upon the white elephant Airavata, who has seven trunks, denoting the seven elements vital to physical functioning. Occasionally, instead of Indra, the deity is Ganesha, with coral orange skin, wearing a lemon yellow dhoti with a green silk scarf draped around his shoulders. In three of his hands he holds a ladu, a lotus flower, a hatchet, and the fourth is raised in the mudra of dispelling fear.

Seed mantra

The seed mantra syllable is lam. Within the bindu, or point that forms a part of the letter, just above it, is Brahma, who is deep red, with four faces and four arms, holding a staff, a sacred vase of nectar, a rosary, making the gesture of dispelling fear (alternatively instead of the staff and rosary he is holding a lotus flower and the sacred scriptures). He is seated on a swan. His shakti is a goddess called Dakini. She is seated on a red lotus, and is shining red or white, has a beautiful face with three eyes and four arms, holding a trident, a skulled staff, a swan, and a drinking vessel (instead of a swan and drinking vessel, she sometimes is holding a sword and a shield).

Seat of Kundalini

In the centre of the square, below the seed syllable, is a deep red inverted triangle. Within this resides/sleeps the kundalini shakti, the great spiritual potential, waiting to be aroused and brought back up to the source from which it originated, Brahman. She is represented as a snake wrapped three and a half times around a smokey grey lingam.


The four petals are red, with the Sanskrit syllables va, scha, sha and sa written in gold upon them, representing the four vritties: greatest joy, natural pleasure, delight in controlling passion, and blissfulness in concentration. Alternatively, they may represent dharma (psycho-spiritual longing), artha (psychic longing), kama (physical longing) and moksha (longing for spiritual liberation).[3]


Muladhara is the base from which the three main psychic channels or nadis emerge: the Ida, Pingala and Sushumna.[4] It is also believed that Muladhara is a subtle abode of the Hindu God, Ganapati. And in the highest revered prayer for Ganapati, the Ganapati Atharvashirsha, it is mentioned that 'one who worships Lord Ganapati would easily grasp the concept and realize Brahman'.


Muladhara is considered the 'root' or 'foundation' chakra, and is the transcendental basis of physical nature. It is also the seat of kundalini awakening, which begins its ascent here. Alternatively it is called the seat of the 'red bindu', or subtle drop, which is caused to rise up to the 'white bindu' in the head in order to unite the female and masculine energies of Shakti and Shiva.

It is associated with the element of earth, and the sense of smell, and the action of excretion.

"By meditating thus on Her who shines within the Muladhara Chakra, with the luster of ten million Suns, a man becomes Lord of speech and King among men, and an Adept in all kinds of learning. He becomes ever free from all diseases, and his inmost Spirit becomes full of great gladness. Pure of disposition by his deep and musical words, he serves the foremost of the Devas." [5]

Association with the body

The location of Muladhara is at the base of the spine, and it is associated as well with the perineum, close to the anus. Being associated with the sense of smell, it is associated with the nose, and being associated with excretion, it is associated with the anus.


In kundalini yoga, there are various yogic practices held to incite the energy in Muladhara including: asanas (such as Garudasana, Shashankasana and Siddhasana); nosetip gazing, or Nasikagra Drishti; specific pranayamas; and most importantly the practice of mula bandha the contraction of the perineum, which awakens kundalini, and is also important for the retention of semen.

Comparisons with other systems

When compared to the other important Tantric system of Vajrayana in Tibet, the Muladhara chakra finds no parallel in the same place, unlike the other 6 chakras. Instead, the Tibetan system positions 2 chakras on the sexual organ, the jewel wheel in the middle, near the tip, and the tip of the sexual organ itself. These chakras are extremely important for the generation of great bliss, and play an important role in Highest tantra sexual practices. In the Tibetan system, the red drop, called the red bodhicitta, is not located here, but instead at the navel wheel.[6]

In the Sufi system of Lataif, there are 2 'lower' Lataif. One is the nafs, which is just below the navel. The nafs incorporates all the elements of man's 'lower self'. The other similar lataif is called the qalab, or mould, which appears in 7 lataif systems, and corresponds to the physical body, but this is sometimes located at the top of the head [7] Qalab is usually further divided into the 4 elements.

In the Kabbalah, the lowest Sephiroth is known as Malkuth, and performs the same transcendental role as the basis of physical nature. It is associated with the sexual organ, in close contact with Yesod.[8]

Alternative names

Tantra: Adhara, Brahma Padma, Bhumi Chakra, Chaturdala, Chatuhpatra, Muladhara, Mooladhara, Mula Chakra, Mula Padma
Vedas (late Upanishads): Adhara, Brahma, Muladhara, Mulakanda
Puranic: Adhara, Muladhara

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